Monday, May 25, 2020

An Analysis of Personality Theory - 1332 Words

An Analysis of Personality Theory by for Everyone has a personality, of course, but until fairly recently, there were no personality theories available to help understand what factors contribute to its development. In recent years, though, personality theories such as McCrae and Costas Big Five and Schwartzs theory of basic values have been advanced for these purposes. To gain some deeper insights into these issues, this paper presents a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to provide a definition of personality and an examination of theoretical approaches to studying personality. Finally, an analysis of those factors that may influence an individuals personality development is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning personality theory in the conclusion. Review and Analysis Definition of Personality An individuals personality is comprised of several factors, some of which may be more prominent at some times than others. The dictionary entry personality defines it as, the complex of characteristics that distinguishes an individual or a nation or group; especially the totality of an individuals behavioral and emotional characteristics (Merriam-Webster, 2001, p. 1687). In this regard, Barrick and Mount (1999) advise that, Personality may to advantage be broadly analyzed into five distinguishable but separate factors, namely intellect, character, temperament, disposition and temper (p. 2). Examination ofShow MoreRelatedIndividuation Analysis : Jungs Theory Of Personality1629 Words   |  7 Pagesthemselves what the point of their existence is (Storr, 1991). One has to self-analyze and let all parts of themselves become one. At the end of this process, a person will be an integrated individual (Storr, 1991). Jung’s Theory of Personality One of Jung’s major contributions was his theory of psychological types. This approach introduced extraversion and introversion (Downey, 1924). According to Jung, an extroverted person’s libido turned outward. This means that a person in a state of extraversion movedRead MoreCritical Analysis of Freuds Theory of Personality907 Words   |  4 PagesSUMMARY Personality is the enduring and unique cluster of characteristics that may change in response to different situations. It can be asses via different approaches such as Self-report or objective inventories, projective techniques, clinical interviews, behavioural assessment procedures and thought and experience-sampling procedures. In the study of personality ideographic research and nomothetic research are used and the major methods that the clinical method, the experimental method and theRead MorePersonality Analysis of Marilyn Monroe by Using Trait Theories1078 Words   |  5 PagesPersonality Analysis of Marilyn Monroe By Using Trait Theories Marilyn Monroe, whose real name is Norma Jeane Mortenson, was born on June 1, 1926 in Los Angeles, California. She was American actress, singer and model. She also was one of the most famous movie star, the sex symbols and pop icons of the 20th century. Despite her an unhappy, difficult childhood she got succeed during her short life period. She worked minor roles for years. Then, she showed her comedy ability, appearance on televisionRead MoreAnalysis of Erik, Phantom of the Opera Using Two Contrasting Personality Theories4920 Words   |  20 Pagesï » ¿Analysis of Erik, Phantom of the Opera Using Two Contrasting Personality Theories The tremendously popular and well-known Andrew Lloyd Webber’s 1986 musical production of The Phantom of the Opera was based on the French novel Le Fantà ´me de lOpà ©ra written by Gaston Leroux in1910 (Leroux, 1910/1990). The original novel gave little direct details with respect to Erik’s past; what was abundant however were hints and implications about the character’s life history throughout the book (Leroux, 1910/1990)Read MoreCosta And Mccrae s Five Factor Theory Of Personality And Eysenck s Pen Theory1496 Words   |  6 PagesCosta and McCrae’s Five Factor theory of personality and Eysenck’s PEN theory have been the subject of significant research in an effort to better understand human personality. This paper focuses on two opposing theories: Costa and McCrae’s Five Factor model, a lexically-based theory with five factors, and Eysenck’s PEN model, a biologically-based theory with three core traits of personality. Utilizing factor analysis, Raymond Cattell (1946) recognized 16 personality factors (16pf). Cattell believedRead MoreFreuds and Rogers Theories of Personality Psychotherapy1004 Words   |  4 PagesFreuds and Rogers Theories Personality Psychotherapy A comparison of Freud and Rogers theories of personality and psychotherapy Personality is the description of an individual through how the individual demonstrates his or her emotions and building relationship and their behavioral patterns. Two neurologists developed two theories to explain the formation of personalities. They were neurologist Sigmund Freud and psychologist Carl Rogers. Rogers and Freud worked in the field of psychotherapyRead MoreEssay about Jennys Personality; Interpretation of Forrest Gump1419 Words   |  6 PagesForrest Gump: Jenny’s Personality Monday, August 22, 2011 PSY202 – Principles of Psychology In this character analysis paper the character of Jenny Curran from the award winning movie Forrest Gump will be the subject of discussion. This paper will present an analysis of the Jenny’s personality as it is applicable to Psychodynamic theory. The paper will present my rationale for the choice to use the Psychodynamic theory to describe Jenny Curran’s personality. In addition, this paper willRead MoreOrganizational Testing and Assessment Essay examples1171 Words   |  5 Pageseffective and reliable in screening employees. In addition they need to know how to properly administer and interpret the results. In the sections below, performance appraisal, behavioral observation scales, the Big Five Personality Theory, meta-analysis, and Carroll’s three stratum theory will be all described and what their purpose is as to being used in organizational testing and assessment. A performance appraisal is basically the same things as a performance of one’s work, a review, an evaluationRead MoreThe Five Factor Model Of Personality853 Words   |  4 PagesAn analysis of the five factor model of personality Many contemporary psychologists believe that there are five basic dimensions of personality and refer to them as the ‘Big Five’. The five-factor model (FFM) of personality is a theory based on five core categories of human personality – openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. While different theorists may use different terminology, the five factors or personality traits have shown a rather consistent pattern overRead MoreComparing The Work Of Sigmund Freud And A Neo Analytical Theorist1290 Words   |  6 Pages Contrasting Personality Theories: Analysis of Freud and Karen Horney Yorkville University Alanna Sampson â€Æ' Abstract The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of the work of Sigmund Freud and a neo-analytical theorist. This paper will compare the work of Freud and Karen Horney and begins with an introduction to the study of personality and an identification of the key elements in Freud and Horney’s theories. The paper then moves into an analysis of where Horney and Freud would

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Chesapeake And New England Colonies Essay - 1819 Words

A community is a group of people who work together towards a common goal and share a common interest. Lack of such a quality can and most likely will cause a struggling town or city to fall into the extremes of poverty and wealth. The New England community was so strong and so supportive in comparison to that of the Chesapeake Bay, that it is no wonder they developed into two distinctly different cultures before the year 1700. The Chesapeake region developed into a land of plantations and money-driven owners, with the elite wealthy, almost no middle class, and those in poverty creating the population. New England, on the other hand, had developed into a religion and family based society comprised of mostly middle class families by 1700.†¦show more content†¦The motives that drove the Pilgrims and Puritans away from anything familiar and the trust they placed in God only proved that they were going to make their life in the new world work, no matter what. Not everyone in Engl and was facing a harsh persecution; many travelers came to the New World with high hopes of money, which led to numerous conflicts. It was a land for the rich to get richer. Most of the settlers bound for Virginia and the Southern colonies had a get rich or die trying type of attitude. The only thing tearing them from home was a flimsy promise of gold that may or may not be there. The motive of such people is so radically different. There were no pacts of agreement, no common laws that kept them in a community once landing. This led the men to never develop any sense of belonging with their fellow men, causing a distinct survival society by 1700. Every man was for himself. It was a bitter game displaying the survival of the richest. The travelers from England that headed for the Chesapeake Bay were predominantly men, which led to an unbalanced society and lack of wives to promote a family-based culture. The passenger list for one boat had a sex ratio of sixty-four men to eleven women. Not only was there a radical imbalance, only four of the men were above forty, while only eight total were above thirty (Doc. C). That left fifty-six young males headed to a new land with only their self-government of a HouseShow MoreRelatedThe New England And Chesapeake Colonies1471 Words   |  6 Pageswas the formation of the thirteen colonies along the North American east coast. These colonies are generally divided into New England, Middle and South or the Chesapeake regions. Most of these colonies were settled by the British, yet they developed differently as the years went by. Some developed into more egalitarian colonies and some not. The greatest differences could be seen in the New England and Chesapeake regions. Even tho ugh the New England and Chesapeake regions were settled originally byRead MoreThe New England And The Chesapeake Colonies Essay1476 Words   |  6 Pagesleading into the 17th century. England was very forceful in pushing out multiple groups of people to the eastern coast of what is now known as North America. At that time there were only two prominent regions in North America, they were known then as the New England and the Chesapeake colonies. These two colonies would eventually band together to stand as one nation, but that was toward the end of the 17th century. The beginning tells a completely different story, both colonies had very different beliefsRead MoreThe New England And Chesapeake Colonies1290 Words   |  6 Pagesfurther exploration of this new world opened to many countries in Europe including England, Spain, and France. While France conquered present day Canada and Spain dominated both Central and South America, English mostly settled in the east coast of present da y United States. During the seventeenth century, a large influx of immigrants came to the New World from England for many different reasons. Due to differences in motive and geography, the New England and Chesapeake colonies developed unique societiesRead MoreThe New England And Chesapeake Colonies1490 Words   |  6 PagesThe people of the New England and Chesapeake colonies, although came from the same people, turned into very different cultures. For example, in New England, Puritanism was favored while in the Chesapeake region Christianity was practiced. Often times, religion would dictate a certain peoples way of life. Although both religions were strict, both had different ideas. Also, there were disagreements that occurred between the people within a colony. Many other ways of life were established in each ofRead MoreThe Chesapeake Colonies and New England Colonies Essay1260 Words   |  6 PagesSpain, Portugal, Holland, and England, all competed for colonization in unknown territories. Samuel de Champlain colonized along the St. Lawrence River in 1608, Henry Hudson of Holland established Albany in 1609, and Spain established colonies in Mexico and Mesoamerica. In 1607, England established its first colony in North America around the Chesapeake Bay, and nearly a decade later established a second colony in present-day New England. Both New England and the Chesapeake were founded by the BritishRead MoreChesapeake Colonies vs. New England Colonies933 Words   |  4 Pagescentury, two colonies emerged from England in the New World. The two colonies were called the Chesapeake and New England colonies. Even though the two areas were formed and governed by the English, the colonies had similarities as well as differences. Differences in geography, religion, politics, economic, and nationalities, were responsible for molding the colonies. These differences came from one major factor: the very reason the English settlers came to the New World. †¨The Chesa peake colonies were primarilyRead MoreCompare And Contrast The Chesapeake And New England Colonies1071 Words   |  5 Pagesthe New World, the English also started to establish colonies and settle in the New World. To encourage the colonization of the New World, England offered charters to Joint-Stock Companies and individuals to set up colonies in the New World. Although the Chesapeake and New England settlers both migrated from England, the two regions of the New World developed into distinctly different societies due to different economic reasons, types of people, and political organization. Both of the colonies hadRead MoreEssay Chesapeake Vs. New England Colonies763 Words   |  4 Pagesdiversity being sown in the early days of colonization when the Chesapeake and New England colonies grew into distinctive societies. Even though both regions were primarily English, they had similarities as well as striking differences. The differentiating characteristics among the Chesapeake and New England colonies developed due to geography, religion, and motives for colonial expansion. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Virginia, the Chesapeake Bay area, was not interested in long-term colonization inRead MoreDifferences Between New England And Chesapeake Colonies1276 Words   |  6 Pagesfindings of new created much curiosity in Europe to explore and conquer new lands in order to expand their empire. In the early 1600’s a surge of motivation to explore and settle new colonies came over England. The Result of this was the New England and Chesapeake colonies, who were both settled by immigrants from England. Many people decided they needed to escape England due to religious persecution and poverty. Hundreds of families, men, women, and their children, came in search of a New World whereRead MoreA Comparison of the New England and the Chesapeake Bay Colonies947 Words   |  4 Pagesthe New England and Chesapeake Bay Regions During the 1700s, people in the American colonies lived in very distinctive societies. While some colonists led hard lives, others were healthy and prosperous. The two groups who showed these differences were the colonists of the New England and Chesapeake Bay areas. The differentiating characteristics among the Chesapeake and New England colonies developed due to economy, religion, and motives for colonial expansion. The colonists of the New England

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Defining The Meaning Of Corporate Social Responsibility

2.0 Discussion 2.1 Defining the meaning of Corporate Social Responsibility Till now, there is no concrete definition of CSR in international level, as it is difficult to identify the boundaries of CSR. Therefore, there are several definitions to describe what the CSR policy is. However, it is noted [1] that CSR meaning is different from countries to other countries and depends upon a range of factors including culture, religion, and governmental or legislative conditions. For instance, the practise of CSR in South Africa focused on matters of racial inequality due to the historic event of Apartheid, while the practise of CSR in Argentina is determined in accordance with the impact of economical crisis in December 2001. W. Visser claimed [2] that, CSR is the formal and informal ways in which business makes a contribution to improving the governance, social, ethical, labour and environmental conditions of the developing countries in which they operate, while remaining sensitive to prevailing religious, historical and cultural contexts . ’ European Commission defines[3] that CSR is , A concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis. The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD)[4]: Corporate Social Responsibility is the continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development whileShow MoreRelatedCorporate Social Responsibility And Its Effects On Consumers And Brand Equity1107 Words   |  5 Pages1: Introduction: Corporate social responsibility is an ambiguous topic to say the least. There has been a vast array of research conducted aimed at understanding why businesses use it, and its effects on consumers and brand equity. In the following section, I will highlight some of the main literature, and critically discuss some of the findings. There is however, a gap in research in terms of critically analysing the extent to which firms position themselves with CSR initiatives through the useRead MoreMicrosoft’s Partnership with Unhcr – Pro Bono Publico Essay1089 Words   |  5 Pagesbetween the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the software giant Microsoft Corporation facilitated a strategic and mutually beneficial partnership, as well as shaping the definition today of good corporate social responsibility. The corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiative was created back in 1999 as an endeavor at a point in time when Microsoft employees engaged to assi st to aid the victims of the Kosovo crisis. The emotional undertaking is referred to as the spark createdRead MoreDefining Civic And Social Responsibility920 Words   |  4 PagesCivic / Social Responsibility Defining Civic and Social Responsibility In a recent article concerning corporate social responsibility, it reveals; â€Å"a survey conducted by and BEYOND Communications Inc. shows big changes in how CEOs reported on corporate social responsibilities.† (Go figure - corporate social responsibility, (2005). The point of view is changing within the corporation world. CEOs are now taking note that this needs to be incorporated into the corporate structure and is a significantRead MoreCarrolls Interpretation of Corporate Social Responsibility1191 Words   |  5 PagesThis report will demonstrate how Carroll’s interpretation of corporate social Responsibility (CSR) is more suited to an Anglo-American interpretation of CSR compared to that of a Nigerian perspective as it is difficult to apply the ideas in the African context due to the country being less stable than the western world that we know. To demonstrate this I will look at the Shell case study in Nigeria and how â€Å"culture may have an important inf luence on CSR priorities† (Burton et al, 2000). In MarchRead MoreHistory And Meaning Of Corporate Governance1450 Words   |  6 PagesCorporate governance is a key term to understand and it is increasingly important part of running a successful company. The system has evolved over the years, guided by the challenges and misjudgements of the corporate world. The following guide will help you look into the history and meaning of corporate governance and find out about the core principles of it. You can also read about the key models and guidelines that help companies implement strong corporate governance in the demanding and competitiveRead MoreImportance of Sustainability in Organizations636 Words   |  3 Pagesimportant on the corporate agenda. According to Brundtland Commission of the  United Nations (1987) sustainability is defined as operating in a way that preserves the long-term quality and productive capacity of both the natural and social environments in which a company operates. For humans, sustainability is defined as the potential for long-term maintenance of well being, which has environmental, economic, and social dimensions. Sustainability therefore involves: †¢ A broad view of social, environmentalRead MoreWhat Does Corporate Responsibility Mean1518 Words   |  7 PagesWhat Does Corporate Social Responsibility Mean? Corporate initiative to assess and take responsibility for the company s effects on the environment and impact on social welfare. The term generally applies to company efforts that go beyond what may be required by regulators or environmental protection groups.  Ã‚   Corporate social responsibility may also be referred to as corporate citizenship and can involve incurring short-term costs that do not provide an immediate financial benefit to theRead MoreThe Concepts Of Corporate Social Responsibility1456 Words   |  6 PagesThe concepts of corporate social responsibility (CSR) have been evolving for decades. At the very beginning, it was argued that corporation’s sole responsibility was to provide maximum financial returns to shareholders. However, it became quickly apparent to everyone that this pursuit of financial gain had to take place within the boundary of the legal system (Carroll, 1979;1991). Bowen’s 1953 publication of ‘Social Responsibility of Businessman’ was considered by many scholar to be the first definitiveRead MoreValues, Ethics, And Sustainability1049 Words   |  5 Pagesstrong relations with each other, companies strategically thinking how to improve business and having partnerships with each othe r to help out today’s social problems. Key Words: Community, Community relations manager, License to operate, Volunteerism, Collaborative Partnerships. The Community and the Corporation Chapter eighteen focuses on defining community and understanding how companies and communities depend on each other to work together. A community benefits business and corporations becauseRead MoreThe Corporate Social Responsibilities ( Csr ) And Maintainability1483 Words   |  6 PagesPresentation Deliberating with the rules given in the inquiries, the entire task worries about the Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR) and maintainability. As it is specified in the inquiries we ll be discussing the CSR and maintainability. The goals of each business while building up are to make the financial conditions more grounded and to last nature for future era. Performing amid its normal exercises, it is having negative effect in nature. In the event that these sorts of exercises are

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Professional - Ethical & Legal Issues in Healthcare

Question: Discuss about theProfessional, Ethical Legal Issues in Healthcare. Answer: Introduction The advancement of medical science has brought forth multiple changes in the healthcare sector in keeping with the changing trends and needs of the hour. The modifications and drastic measures that are revised from time to time support for the economic as well as health wise prosperity of the citizens of a nation. The alterations and changes prior to coming into force have to face several intermittent stages of abiding by the ethical issues and legal implications so as to ensure optimum outcomes in the concerned population. Therefore, the measures adapted to culminate in harboring maximum possible benefit out of a clinical situation are often shrouded with few questions and circumstances that account for ethical dilemma (Lo, 2012). This necessitates the healthcare providers encompassing physicians, nurses, paramedics and other supporting staff to strictly work in compliance with the existing code of conduct, guidelines and legislations to render quality healthcare facility to the dis tressed patients without violating the ethical and legal principles. The shared decision making in this regard have been indicated as an essential virtue to translate the conceptions into actual clinical practice (Elwin et al. 2012). The following assignment will be based on a scenario concerning a terminally ill cancer survivor that provides an example of ethical dilemma. The discussions will be done in accordance with the given scenario following the ethical, legal and professional aspects of a practice based situation. Further application and evaluation of the bioethical principles involving autonomy, justice, beneficence, and non-maleficence will form the basis of the logical discussion. Philosophical theories such as deontology and utilitarianism will be considered for understanding the situation pertinent to the given scenario. These theories and principles will be interlinked to the case situation to get an insight into the relevant scenario. Ethical Situation During the course of my clinical practice as a nursing professional I encountered a situation that had put me into ethical dilemma. Ms. Ann was diagnosed with cancer and was brought to the hospital for the treatment of her ailment. However, her family members were very much concerned about Ms. Ann and insisted that this harsh truth of cancer diagnosis be concealed from her in an effort to allay her emotional distress of being informed to be diagnosed of a life threatening disease like that of cancer. The end of life decisions and treatments for such patients is therefore imperative to foster best possible care (Bossaert et al. 2015). The reason I chose to discuss this particular instance is that the decisions and subsequent care and treatment regime for people suffering from debilitating and serious illness like that of cancer, AIDS and others have been a matter of serious concern for the healthcare providers globally. These people particularly the nurses are challenged to take independent and case appropriate measures to provide maximum relief to these terminally ill patients without breaching bioethical principles and inflicting any sort of harm. Thus proper awareness and knowledge regarding the laws and professional as well as ethical issues will aid the nurses to act rationally and cope up with the demanding scenarios effectively (Walker and Colledge 2013). Discussion The given case may be analyzed in the light of the ethical, legal and professional aspects of a practice based situation. Research reveals that oncology nurses routinely encounter situations of ethical dilemma while caring for advanced cancer patient specifically relating prognosis related communications. The nurses experience situations of uncertainty and barriers in providing end of life care healthcare service and hence clarifications regarding their roles and responsibilities to counteract such incidents are required. The most commonly reported ethical dilemma involves uncertainty and hindrance to truth telling (McLennon et al. 2013). Similar encounter is reported in case of Ms. Ann, a cancer patient where the family members are found to persuade the nursing professionals to refrain from uttering the truth to the patient for preventing further mental complications mainly. Interdisciplinary education may contribute to mitigate the issues faced by the nursing professionals. Therefo re, in this matter global bioethics may be consulted to attain a level of consensus through constructive dialogues and negotiations. Both bottom-up as well as top-down approach of interaction may be suitable in such cases (ten Have and Gordijn 2014). All the virtues and guiding principles need to be properly addressed in each of the cases to provide an effective solution to the demanding problems. The given scenario will be discussed in such pretext. Autonomy and justice are the two most essential virtues of bioethical principles. Autonomy upholds the privacy and confidentiality of the affected individuals or the patients receiving care under the guidance of the healthcare worker in a specific clinical setting and infrastructure. Provision of sufficient information without suppression of facts to enable them to make informed choices is an important prerequisite of such principle (Beauchamp 2016). On the other hand justice emphasizes on equal worth of persons and fair opportunity for all and is guided by a moral obligation to entitlement (Cole, Wellard and Mummery 2014). Customarily patient advocacy has recently been reinforced in the nursing codes of conduct, codes of ethics and standards for practice to promote resolution of these issues in the clinical practice. In the given context Ms. Allens privacy and confidentiality was effectively maintained thus providing evidence for acting in conformity with the autonomy principle. However concealment of facts was done in this case in an effort to do good to her without taxing her with the harsh truth about her prevailing clinical condition. Her family members were fully aware about her clinical condition and they only appealed the nurses of not telling her the truth. No discrimination was performed in treating the patient and therefore justice was adequately protected. In a holistic approach for patient management and treatment strategy a patient and family centered care model has been recommended to better understand the clinical outcomes in such patients. Coordination and communication among all the components involved is thus suggested as integral to patient recovery (Hood 2013). Therefore, in the said case a little violation of autonomy principle was observed due to truth concealment from the p atient although justice was provided to the utmost. In nursing practice consideration of three key aspects of care, vulnerability and dignity have been highlighted as ethical approaches to maintain, protect and promote the self worth of the patient. This has been observed as a foundation for argument based nursing ethics framework (Gastmans 2013). This philosophy may be corroborated with the given case study where the nurses refrained from uttering the truth regarding the diagnosis of cancer in Ms. Ann due to the potential vulnerability of her from actually getting to know the significance of her clinical findings. Care was also properly addressed in terms of provision of moral support to the patient without actually making her aware about the graveness of her ailment. Dignity of Ms. Ann was maintained throughout the treatment regime by virtue of ethical and legal compliance to the professional codes of conduct as referred to in the Singapore Nursing Board guidelines related to Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct for the nurses (A non, 2016). Another aspect of the healthcare sector emphasizes on the active participation of the end users of healthcare commonly referred to as the patients, consumers or public into decision making in both economic and therapeutic fields thereby rendering crucial implications for maintaining the rights of the patient. The rights of the patients include equal access to healthcare from all quarters of the healthcare facility. The right to accept or deny treatment in conjunction with other rights such as formulation of advance directives is yet another key component of the prospective rights to be enjoyed by the patient. The right to information and communication prior to receiving therapeutic interventions is a vital necessity for the patients for procuring enough information related to the health that might affect the recovery process (Johnstone 2015). Thus the rights of the patient in the particular case were protected as far as practicable by accounting her physical treatment modalities and not just emphasizing her individual decision making ability and choices in receiving specific care. Quality care provision was not particularly compromised in the given case although informed decision making was quite limited with an effort to mitigate her psychological distress from knowing the actual truth. As per the empirical research findings, the salient features pertaining to healthcare facility include clashing of ethical principles, issues associated to communication, dearth of resources and quality of care provision. Improved ethics education for care providers will offer better service provision facility within a healthcare setting according to such research (Preshaw et al. 2015). Another crucial principle related to bioethics encompasses beneficence where the caregivers are under the obligation of providing maximum benefit. The aim of the caregiver relies on evaluating the risks and benefits properly in order to provide optimum care. Promotion of well-being is the chief objective of beneficence. The intention of doing good and what is necessary for the patient is the motto of the service providers in abiding by this virtue (Rocco et al. 2014). In the context of the given scenario the virtue of beneficence was followed to the core by the healthcare practitioners since they engaged in doing utmost good for the patient by not revealing the harsh truth of cancer diagnosis. Their efforts were directed to alleviate the mental trauma and panic of the patients from the negative perception and knowledge regarding the ensuing conditions from disease. The fact concealment by the healthcare workers was done for the ultimate good of the patient in the given scenario considering the fact that the patient might be profoundly impacted on knowing the actual truth. Therefore for the sake of the good of the patient and allay the possibility for any sort of mental distress from information related to her diagnosis of cancer was kept secret from Ms. Ann. Apparently though it might seem that the beneficence was not maintained, but on closer inspection it will become evident that the decision for hiding the truth of cancer detection from the pat ient was correct and prudent in terms of gaining long term benefits out of such act. Research has underpins the importance of framing a uniform evidence based ethical infrastructure to facilitate better patient care and clinical outcome. Promotion of correct and case appropriate decision making abilities among the nursing professionals in their professional practice and research are also among the projected purpose of such study (Mallari, Grace and Joseph 2016). Hence the act of the nurses as observed in Ms. Anns case seems perfectly justified. The act of inflicting the least possible harm in order to achieve a positive beneficial outcome is generally referred to as non-malfeasance. Harms and its effects are of pivotal importance in ethical decision making process during clinical practice. Research has highlighted on the unintentional short term and long term harm to be attributable to life saving treatment that enable the patient to recover from their diseased states quite peacefully without any hassle. The notion of doing less harm than doing more good forms the core ideology of this bioethical principle. This virtue in addition to other bioethical virtues guiding the moral code of conduct in a practicing medical professional needs proper evaluation and fixed set of principles to ease the task of the healthcare workers with their regular clinical discourse. Research has highlighted the need of planning ethics content in nursing curricula to improve moral sensitivity and moral reasoning among the students (Park et al. 2012 ). The nursing outcomes classification (NOC) has been indicated as a valid measurement technique to assess the situation of the terminally ill patients suffering from cancer possessing chronic or acute pain within a palliative care unit (Mello et al. 2016). In the given scenario, the nurses with the complete support and informed consent from the family members of Ms. Ann, a cancer patient made utmost effort to inflict least amount of harm to her. Their approach may be attributed to the fact that in order to prevent the risk of developing immense stress and agony from knowing that Ms. Ann was suffering from the incurable and grave disease of cancer, the nurses following repeated appeal from her family members refrained from exposing the truth to the patient. This was done for all good of the patient so that she does not suffer from further complication as a consequence to her diagnosis. Although the nurses are exposed to a situation of ethical dilemma under such circumstances, yet they are found to do commendable jobs by taking measures of not doing harm to the patient. Bolstering ethical awareness is of surmountable significance under such conditions to recognize and acknowledge the unique interests and wishes of the individual patients receiving care under medical supervision of the nurses (Milliken and Grace 2015). Further in the context of hospital setting safety education programs within an organizational framework effective safety nursing activities has been recommended to usher awareness pertaining to patient safety culture (Kang and Park 2016). Hence taking into consideration of the above criteria, the conduct of the nurses in the given scenario was found to be in line with the principle of non-malfeasance. For nursing practice, abiding by the existing rules and legislations is widely reckoned as an essential prerequisite to determine the accountability of the practicing nursing professional by virtue of predefined set of competency standards that are commonly followed in most of the nations worldwide. These laws serve to act as sources of guidance for the nurses in medico-legal cases and also set limitations to independent nursing actions. Maintenance of standards of nursing practice along with differentiation being made between the nurses responsibilities from other healthcare professionals is also the function of the laws concerning nursing practice. Nursing laws are generally the outcome of statutes or legislation that are stringently regulated and amended from time to time by a governing authority (Krautscheid 2014). In nursing practice, serious violation of the relevant laws often leads to criminal or legal prosecution depending upon the seriousness of the situation. Breach of conduct in professional nursing practice often accompanies situation where safety, privacy, confidentiality and dignity of the patients are not adequately addressed thereby paving the ways for criminal prosecution. Nurses are generally held accountable for making sound, professional judgments, anticipating foreseeable damage and being answerable for the actions. For achieving the optimum clinical outcomes relevant to a particular case a holistic mode of treatment strategy is recommended. Collaborative approach for improvising treatment schedule in coalition with the moral and ethical principles endeavor to harbor maximum benefits in clinical nursing practice (Grace 2013). Other guiding principles and standards for practice in nursing emphasizes on proper documentation of medical records, strict monitoring of the drug admin istration and undertaking a person centered care approach unique to each patient to ensure quality healthcare service. Maintenance of privacy and confidentiality of the retrieved patient data in keeping with the human rights and informed consent protocol are the two vital legal considerations in nursing practice and the Human Rights Act (1998) and Data Protection Act (2003) may be referred in this context (Mair 2014). In the given scenario all the legal implications were followed adequately to ensure the best possible clinical outcomes in the cancer patient. The case of Ms. Ann can be further analyzed on the basis of the deontological philosophy of normative ethical theory. It states that right or wrong actions do not account for the consequences; instead they act as indicators of agreement with moral norms and rules. Intention is the matter of consideration in such theories to judge the rationality of a particular task. In short actions determine the goodness or badness out of a scenario. Telling the truth and keeping promises are perceived as integral to comply by a set of moral decorum even for situations where harm might occur. Democratic professionalism has been detected as an important contributing factor in establishing social justice in this regard (Thompson 2014). Following the given case scenario, the deontological philosophy was not fully satisfied as the nurses intentionally refrained from telling the truth to the patient regarding her cancer diagnosis. It was a conscious decision on the nurses parts to not reveal the truth with a specific purpose of reducing and mitigating the burden of psychological distress in the patient. Thus this theory of judging the moral rightness of an act in terms of the intrinsic moral value of the act itself through deontology was found to be incongruent and inconclusive in Ms. Anns context. Deeper probe into the theories guiding the ethical conduct of a person and pertinent to healthcare settings in case of the practicing nurses, the concept of utilitarianism may be considered for discussion. It is based on the principle that an action is morally right if it has the ability to generate greater amount of good or happiness than any other possible act. Thus the moral worth of an action is solely determined by its contribution to overall utility (Qi, Xu and Shan 2013). Production of the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of people is another key feature of the utilitarianism philosophy and essentially adopts a teleological approach to ethics and supports in favor of judging an action based upon its consequences. Careful, objective and impartial evaluations of the consequences are some of the other vital concepts relevant to this theory (Alligood 2013). Ms. Anns case study corroborates with the philosophy of the utilitarianism where actions were very much intended to harbor optimum benefits from concealment of truth from the patient to do ultimate good to her. Such decisions reflected upon bringing happiness and relief to majority of the persons involved in the case encompassing the patient, her family members and the attending healthcare providers. The patient did not have to face the trauma of knowing the truth while the family was relived of not informing their loved one about the tragedy of the terminal illness. The nurses were also happy to perform to the best of their capability of what was expected out of them under such demanding scenario. Conclusion In fine assessing from the situations that had thwarted the nurse to encounter a perception of ethical dilemma, a proper feedback in handling similar scenarios may be obtained. The nurse performed case suited responsibility through prudence and pragmatism to ensure the best possible remedy and benefit for the patient named Ms. Ann diagnosed with cancer without doing any harm that might have repercussive outcomes in future. Thus beneficence and non-maleficence virtue was accurately addressed. Justice was done in this case as it was fair to make the patient unaware about her specific problem for her own good as disclosure of the actual reality might delay her chances of recovery and put her into more complication because of potential risks of psychological setbacks (Cherry and Jacob 2015). The right action for the immediate good of the patient was done through concealments of the facts pertaining to her medical condition that was in line with the philosophical theory of utilitarianism. However the near and dear ones of the patient comprising of her family members were made aware about her situation and obligatory duty by the nurses was performed in compliance with the deontological concept. Self dignity and rights of the patient was also maintained in the clinical handling situation that may be rationalized in the context of preservation of autonomy (Kuhse and Singer 2013). Hence, overall consideration of the patient circumstances pertaining to the given scenario provides insightful knowledge regarding patient handling appropriate to a specific case and in offering evidence based care in clinical setting. The professional codes of conduct, ethical and legal issues in healthcare are thus imperative to provide maximum healthcare utility for patients demanding critical care services facilitating the possibility of recuperation in such cases. References Alligood, M.R., 2013.Nursing theory: Utilization application. Elsevier Health Sciences. Anon, (2016). [online] Available at: https://www.healthprofessionals.gov.sg/.../snb/.../Code%20of%20Ethics%20and%20Professi [Accessed 25 Nov. 2016]. Apcsnbcbmp, G. and Grace, P.J., 2013. Nursing Ethics and Professional Responsibility in Advanced Practice. Beauchamp, T.L., 2016. Principlism in Bioethics. InBioethical Decision Making and Argumentation(pp. 1-16). Springer International Publishing. Bossaert, L.L., Perkins, G.D., Askitopoulou, H., Raffay, V.I., Greif, R., Haywood, K.L., Mentzelopoulos, S.D., Nolan, J.P., Van de Voorde, P., Xanthos, T.T. and Lippert, F.K., 2015. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015: Section 11. The ethics of resuscitation and end-of-life decisions. Cherry, B. and Jacob, S.R., 2015.Contemporary nursing: Issues, trends, management. Elsevier Health Sciences. Cole, C., Wellard, S. and Mummery, J., 2014. Problematising autonomy and advocacy in nursing.Nursing ethics, p.0969733013511362. Elwyn, G., Frosch, D., Thomson, R., Joseph-Williams, N., Lloyd, A., Kinnersley, P., Cording, E., Tomson, D., Dodd, C., Rollnick, S. and Edwards, A., 2012. Shared decision making: a model for clinical practice.Journal of general internal medicine,27(10), pp.1361-1367. Gastmans, C., 2013. Dignity-enhancing nursing care A foundational ethical framework.Nursing Ethics,20(2), pp.142-149. Hood, L., 2013.Leddy Pepper's conceptual bases of professional nursing. Lippincott Williams Wilkins. Johnstone, M.J., 2015.Bioethics: a nursing perspective. Elsevier Health Sciences. Kang, J.M. and Park, J.S., 2016. Relationship between Perception of Patient Safety Culture and Performance for Safety Care Activity in Rehabilitation Hospital Nurse.The Korean Journal of Rehabilitation Nursing,19(1), pp.12-19. Krautscheid, L.C., 2014. Defining professional nursing accountability: A literature review.Journal of Professional Nursing,30(1), pp.43-47. Kuhse, H. and Singer, P. eds., 2013.A companion to bioethics. John Wiley Sons. Lo, B., 2012.Resolving ethical dilemmas: a guide for clinicians. Lippincott Williams Wilkins. Mair, J., 2014. An introduction to legal aspects of nursing practice.Contexts of Nursing, p.167. Mallari, M.S.N., Grace, M. and Joseph, D., 2016. Ethical Frameworks for Decision-Making in Nursing Practice and Research: An Integrative Review. McLennon, S.M., Uhrich, M., Lasiter, S., Chamness, A.R. and Helft, P.R., 2013. Oncology nurses narratives about ethical dilemmas and prognosis-related communication in advanced cancer patients.Cancer nursing,36(2), pp.114-121. Mello, B.S., Massutti, T.M., Longaray, V.K., Trevisan, D.F. and de Ftima Lucena, A., 2016. Applicability of the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) to the evaluation of cancer patients with acute or chronic pain in palliative care.Applied Nursing Research,29, pp.12-18. Milliken, A. and Grace, P., 2015. Nurse ethical awareness Understanding the nature of everyday practice.Nursing ethics, p.0969733015615172. Park, M., Kjervik, D., Crandell, J. and Oermann, M.H., 2012. The relationship of ethics education to moral sensitivity and moral reasoning skills of nursing students.Nursing ethics,19(4), pp.568-580. Preshaw, D.H., Brazil, K., McLaughlin, D. and Frolic, A., 2015. Ethical issues experienced by healthcare workers in nursing homes Literature review.Nursing ethics, p.0969733015576357. Qi, H.J., Xu, L.Z. and Shan, K., 2013. Analysis on Application of Utilitarianism in Health Decision-Making.Chinese Health Economics,9, p.007. Rocco, G., Affonso, D.D., Mayberry, L.J., Stievano, A., Alvaro, R. and Sabatino, L., 2014. Global Qualitative Nursing Research. ten Have, H.A. and Gordijn, B., 2014.Global bioethics(pp. 3-18). Springer Netherlands. Thompson, J.L., 2014. Discourses of social justice: examining the ethics of democratic professionalism in nursing.Advances in Nursing Science,37(3), pp.E17-E34. Walker, B.R. and Colledge, N.R., 2013.Davidson's principles and practice of medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Tuesday, April 7, 2020

Social Identity Theory and Realistic Group Conflict Theory Essay Example

Social Identity Theory and Realistic Group Conflict Theory Paper A group comprises two or more individuals, who interact with each other, share common goals, are interdependent and acknowledge their formation as a group. People join groups for several reasons. Amongst these reasons are, for interpersonal needs, support and commitment and group synergy. Interpersonal needs include ones desire for inclusion, where the individual is desirous of establishing an identity with others, which is often used as a way of self-verification. Individuals need affection and joining a group is an excellent way of establishing relationships and making friends. Another component of interpersonal needs, is a sense of control, where the individual wants to prove his/her abilities and being in a group serves as an outlet to demonstrate these abilities. Support and commitment is important to an individual, as he/she may want to undertake a project but finds that he/she would be far more motivated, if working in a group. Also, the support given to each group member, by the other members reinforces commitment to the project being undertaken. Group Synergy refers to the idea that two or more heads are better than one, and that groups are more capable of producing higher quality work than the individual would. Group Synergy also recognizes that groups make better decisions than individuals. We will write a custom essay sample on Social Identity Theory and Realistic Group Conflict Theory specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Social Identity Theory and Realistic Group Conflict Theory specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Social Identity Theory and Realistic Group Conflict Theory specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Groups go through five (5) stages of development. It is important to note that to move from one stage to another can only be achieved on the basis of the success of the goals of the preceding stage. The first stage is forming. At this primary level, group members come together and each individual collects data about the similarities and differences of the other members. The major task of forming is orientation, where its members become oriented to the group task(s) as well as each other. Discussion is centered on the approach(es), as well as similar concerns about the task(s). The second stage is storming. As the groups members attempt to organize the task(s), conflict is inevitable, due to personal beliefs or ideas. At this stage, members compromise their own beliefs to suit the groups organization. Because of fear of exposure or failure, there will be an increased desire for structural clarification and commitment. Questions concerning leadership and responsibility roles arise during this stage, as well as the reward system and criteria for evaluation. Once these concerns are addressed, the group moves on to the third stage, norming. Norming is characterized by cohesion. At this stage, members are concerned about problem solving and are willing to change preconceived ideas, on the basis of facts which are presented by other members and actively ask questions of one another. During this stage, members begin to identify with one another and acknowledge that the group is working in a unit. This contributes to the development of group cohesion. Assuming that the goal(s) of the three preceding stages are accomplished, the group moves on to stage four, which is performing. At this level, the need for group approval is past and members are capable of working independently, in sub-groups or as total unit with equal facility. Group unity is complete, morale is high and loyalty is intense. There is support in problem-solving and an emphasis on achievement. The final stage, adjourning, involves the termination of tasks and disengagement from relationships. Members are recognized and acknowledged for their contribution, participation and achievement, and are now ready to part company and disintegrate as a single unit. Social Identity Theory and Realistic Group Conflict Theory have different assumptions about the nature of groups. Social Identity Theory was developed by Henri Tajfel and John Turner in 1979 and 3 central ideas; categorization, identification and comparison. In order to understand our social environment, one has to categorize individuals. For example, to classify an individual as a black person is quite vague. However, when the same individual is classified as Jamaican, teacher or Baptist, the individual takes on a clearer meaning. Identification carries two meanings. At times, individuals may refer to themselves as we versus them and at other times I versus him/her. This indicates that there are times when individuals think of themselves as members of a group and times when the individuals think of themselves as a single unit. When individuals refer to themselves as we, the we represents the individuals in-group, or group to which the individual belongs to. When the individual refers to them, the them is the out-group, or group that the individual does not belong to. The final component of Social Identity Theory is social comparison. Individuals need to feel good about them themselves and so in the context of being part of the in-group, the individual seeks to maximize the difference between the in-group and the out-group so that the in-group is always reflected in a more positive light than then out-group. In 1971, Tajfel et al conducted an experiment which they called the Minimal Group Experiment. This experiment was conducted to ascertain whether competition was a necessary condition for ethnocentrism, the belief that ones in-group is superior to ones out-group. The experiment used a group of Bristol school boys as its subjects. These boys were show slide projections with varying numbers of dots. The boys were told that there some people in the group who were under estimators and over estimators of the dots being displayed. The second task involved splitting the boys into two groups, which they were made to think that one group consisted of over estimators and the other group consisted of under estimators. What the boys did not know, was that in actuality, they were selected randomly. The task was to allocate points redeemable for money. What was discovered was that in-group favoritism was displayed even though each boy did not know who the other in-group members were. They still allocated more points to members of the in-group. Even though these same boys were linked in various ways, through sport teams or as neighbors, this did not have any meaning or impact on the way they allocated points and demonstrated in-group bias. A second experiment was conducted to endorse the findings of the preceding experiment. The boys were shown a series of paintings by two artists, Klee and Kadinsky. They were asked to choose their preference and were then divided into two groups. Again, the boys were unaware that the groups were not being divided according to artist preference. Again, the boys demonstrated in-group favoritism by allocating more points to in-group members. Based on these two experiments, Tajfel concluded that indeed, by categorizing the boys into meaningless groups caused blatant discrimination. A more recent display of Social Identity Theory in action is the of the Serbs uniting in solidarity to support their leader Slobodan Milosevic as he went before the International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia. While Milosevics policies had contributed to brutal war, economic ruin and widespread corruption, Serbs saw themselves as a group/nation going to trial, instead of Milosevic as an individual on trial. The trial came across as a threat to Serbs as a unit. They could not escape the social identity of being a serb, so the best mechanism they could use was to categorize themselves and distance themselves from the out-group, which are western countries. Realistic Group Conflict Theory is the idea that prejudice sometimes stems from competition between groups for scarce resources. In 1961, Sherif et al, set up the Robbers Cave Experiment. This experiment was a summer camp which consisted of 22 boys from similar backgrounds and family structure, who were all Caucasian. The boys were not acquainted prior to the camp, so they were allowed to get acquainted with each other, by sharing in various activities. The boys were then split into two groups; the Rattlers and the Eagles. Each group independently engaged in their own activities, which led to a more intimate relationship, where they had developed codes, jargon and nicknames. The next stage involved pitting both groups against each other for a prize, to determine what would happen when they came together after bonding with their own in-group. This was done via an organized tournament which included a treasure hunt and a baseball game. By the end of the tournament there was visible hostility as the groups began to call each other names and launched a food fight in the dining room. In a 1949 study, one school of thought for reducing hostility was to introduce a third group, which would represent the common enemy to both groups. This solution was not desirable to Sherif, as he thought it would widen the inter-group conflict to a larger scale. In order to resolve the hostile conflict, Sherif noted that the groups need more than just contact. They needed a series of goals which could only be accomplished when both groups efforts were combined. These goals are termed super ordinate goals. The series involved a water supply crisis, where both groups had to locate the fault by working together. A second goal which was set up is the hiring of a film. The camp had no money to pay for it, however, if both groups combined their financial resources they would be able to rent the film for the benefit of all. The third challenge was towing a broken down food truck together, using a rope they had used previously in a tug-of-war game, to get the truck started. The realization of success from working together gradually reduced conflict to the point where the boys became friends, from these experiences. This experiment supports that the use of super ordinate goals, which means that both groups share the same agenda of accomplishing a specific goal together, can reduce conflict. While both theories seek to reduce group conflict, Social Identity Theory leans towards a cognitive approach of in-group bias. If group members believe that they are in a group with others who share similar identities and goals, then bias towards in-group members exist. The reward does not have to be a physical one, as the aim is towards achieving high self-esteem. Group members will do all possible to preserve their superiority so that their self-esteem will always be high. Through re-categorizing individuals, prejudice and conflict may be reduced, as individuals tend to categorize in reference to self. This would mean that each time a group is re-categorized, individuals would be identifying with each group he/she is being classified with, hence reducing out-group discrimination since the individual would be identifying with others at different times. Realistic Group Conflict Theory leans towards a behavioral approach to conflict resolution, as demonstrated in the Robbers Cave Experiment. Initially, it was a case of survival of the fittest as they groups clamored for the scarce resource (tournament prize). However, through their collective actions, they were able to pool physical and financial resources to benefit both groups. It is through series behavioral actions that both groups realized they could accomplish the super ordinate goals set before them. Another difference between Social Identity Theory and Realistic Group Conflict Theory is that Social Identity Theory places an emphasis on social competition, which has more to do with pride and self-esteem, while Realistic Group Conflict Theory uses objective competition which is vying for an object of social reality.

Monday, March 9, 2020

Meteorologists Are Scientists Who Study the Weather

Meteorologists Are Scientists Who Study the Weather While most people know a meteorologist is a person who is trained in the atmospheric or weather sciences, many may not be aware that there is more to a meteorologists job than simply forecasting the weather. A meteorologist is a person who has received a specialized education to use scientific principles to explain, understand, observe, and forecast the earths atmospheric phenomena and how this affects the earth and life on the planet. Weathercasters, on the other hand, do not have specialized educational backgrounds and merely disseminate weather information and forecasts prepared by others. Although not many people do it, its rather easy to  become a meteorologist- all you need to do is earn a bachelors, masters, or even doctorate in meteorology or in atmospheric sciences. After completing a degree in the field, meteorologists can apply to work for science research centers, news stations, and a variety of other government jobs related to climatology. Jobs in the Field of Meteorology While meteorologists are well-known for issuing your forecasts, this is only one example of the jobs that they do- they also report on the weather, prepare weather warnings, study long-term weather patterns, and even teach others about meteorology as professors. Broadcast meteorologists  report the weather for television, which is a popular career choice as it is entry-level, which means you only need a Bachelors degree to do it (or sometimes, no degree at all); on the other hand, forecasters are responsible for preparing and issuing weather forecasts as well as watches and warnings, to the public. Climatologists  look at long-term weather patterns and data to help assess past climate and to predict future climate trends while research meteorologists include storm chasers and hurricane hunters and require a Masters degree or a Ph.D. Research meteorologists generally work for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the  National Weather Service  (NWS), or another government agency. Some meteorologists, like  forensic  or  consulting meteorologists, are hired for their expertise in the field to help other professionals. Forensic meteorologists investigate claims for insurance companies on past weather or research past weather conditions pertaining to court cases in a court of law while consulting meteorologists are hired on by retailers, film crews, large corporations, and other non-weather companies to provide weather guidance on a variety of projects. Still, other meteorologists are more specialized.  Incident Meteorologists work with firefighters and emergency management personnel by providing  onsite weather support during wildfires and other natural disasters while  tropical  meteorologists focus on tropical storms and hurricanes. Finally, those with a passion for meteorology and education can help to create future generations of meteorologists by becoming a meteorology teacher or professor. Salaries and Compensation Meteorologist salaries vary depending on position (entry level or experienced) and the employer (federal or private) but typically range from $31,000 to over $150,000 per year; most meteorologists working in the United States can expect to make $51,000 on average. Meteorologists in the United States are most often employed by either the National Weather Service, which offers between 31 to 65 thousand dollars per year; Rockwell Collins, which offers 64 to 129 thousand dollars per year; or the U.S. Air Force (USAF), which offers salaries of 43 to 68 thousand annually. There are  many reasons to become a meteorologist, but ultimately, decided to become a scientist who studies climate and the weather should come down to your passion for the field- if you love weather data, meteorology might be the ideal career choice for you.

Friday, February 21, 2020

Color Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Color - Research Paper Example Color may be quantified and described by the extent to which they stimulate different types of cone cells (Travis, 2003). This is because color perception stems from different spectrum sensitivity of various cone cells in the retina to various parts of the spectrum. The physiological or physical color quantifications do not fully describe the color appearance and its psychophysical perception. The science of color is referred to as chromatography, color science or chromatics (Farndon, 2003). It involves color perception by the brain and human eye. Human perception of color originates from composites of light, photons’ energy spectrum entering the eye. The retina contains photosensitive cells on the back of the eye’s the inner surface. These photosensitive cells are composed of pigments absorbing visible light (Savage, 1998). There are two classes of photosensitive cells: cones and rods. Cones are responsible for human ability to distinguish between various colors (Klein er, 2004). On the other hand, the rods sense light intensity variations and are effective in dim light. Rods sense the flux of no photon energy, the incident photons. Therefore, whenever there is a dim light, human eye do not perceive colored objects as shades of color, but as shades of grey (Travis, 2003). Diagram of color and light Perception of color in the retina is done by photoreceptor cones which are sensitive to photons whose energy widely extend beyond the green, blue, and red spectrum portions (Kleiner, 2004). Color vision is often possible because of the differing photon energy sensitivity of the sets of cones (Savage, 1998). For every flux of photons or color signal, a ration of response in the different sets of cones is triggered. This ration is what permits color perception. During the day, human vision is effectively mostly in the blue-green where the spectrum of the sun is in its maximum region (Travis, 2003). Color sensation primarily depends on light composition, a mixture of colored light and white light (in itself can be wavelength mixture, like purple’s case) (Farndon, 2003). The colored light may have dominant hue or wavelength. The degree to which the wavelength dominates is referred to as chroma, saturation. This saturation, chroma decreases as the white light deletes the wavelength. There are 3 receptors that respond to various wavelengths in the eye. This results in attempts to chart colors via e primary lights mixture. A good number of colors are produces through mixing lights originating from the 3 primary lights. However, not all colors can be produced in this manner (Savage, 1998). Color vision development in human beings is an interesting process of evolution (Kleiner, 2004). The human eye is not in a linear straightforward development. Development of color vision begins as a light sensitive pigment and then differentiates on a smaller creature to create structures that are sensitive to light (Savage, 1998). These light se nsitive structures disperse in the forming eyeball and turns to be the retina. Initially, retina was like a moving sensor. However, it developed the ability to delineate fine details and to see color. The evolution of the eye and color perception is a standard development seen in all vertebrates and many non-vertebrates. So what is color? Why does retina develop ability to see color? (Farndon, 2003). Color is a visual perception that corresponds in human to the categories referred to as blue,