Thursday, August 27, 2020

Network monitoring and analysis Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

System observing and examination - Assignment Example 214). Aimless solicitations for section into the system at such a rate, that the servers neglect to react in a convenient way prompting clog development is one of the trademark highlights of Denial of Service activity. Tear Dropping and shared assaults are ordinarily known activities and exercises that are involved in the area of DoS assaults on the systems. Various activities might be attempted as counter measures against DoS. The establishment of a viable firewall is one potential arrangement against this threat. Firewall permits consecutive section of traffic and demands and in this way keeps the framework from flood and flooding of solicitations. Other potential alternatives of security incorporate strategies, for example, Black holding, or basically utilization of switches as a substitute. The method of Internet Based Prevention System is likewise a choice against the DoS movement which permits running a smooth operational

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Terminator and the Matrix Essay Example

Eliminator and the Matrix Essay Example Eliminator and the Matrix Essay Eliminator and the Matrix Essay The word reference term for generalizing is a fixed picture or thought of a sort of individual or thing that is broadly held. Generalizing was exceptionally famous towards ladies before the 1980s. This was called sexism. Ladies were dealt with severely for example there was discussion of a biased based impediment, this was a term used to portray how ladies were forestalled to arrive at top positions. Generalizing can be utilized in various manners. One route was in films, for example, Legally Blond and Miss Congeniality. The demonstration of generalizing in the film Legally Blond is the point at which a lady is depicted as a Barbie doll. At that point exploits her looks and uses it to get what she needs. Not long after she was at long last, regarded or her mind than her decision of style. Anyway Miss Congeniality is known for an alternate and unforeseen sort of generalizing. This time the fundamental character was indicated very masculine. In this manner she experienced a procedure of getting extremely ladylike. Those movies demonstrate that it may be troublesome however lady can do for all intents and purposes whatever men can do. In the two movies the Terminator and the Matrix generalizing has been utilized as often as possible and unmitigatedly. For example in the film Terminator, Sarah Connor is spoken to as a common energetic lady. This is uncovered the crowd when her lone outfits are for the most part pink. Rather than Sarah, Trinity has been spoken to characteristically also, anyway in the direct inverse of Sarah Connor. For instance she has been indicated masculine and brave, this through the CGI which causes trinity to perform exceptional forces. Additionally the decision of Trinitys name is unexpected in light of the fact that it is very ladylike, which would be given to somebody who is womanly. While toward the, start of the film Trinity appears to be a dull and puzzling individual. This is parted with in various parts of he the film, for example, in the introduction the soundtrack is extremely tense and wiry. The executive likewise made the music quick and high tuned during the pursuit scene among Trinity and Mr Smith. This underscores the way that there is activity going on. The impact of this can let the watchers truly feel and envision what Trinity is thinking and doing. Following an alternate territory of the film the lighting uncovers a great deal about Trinitys character. While presenting the film it is extremely dim and creepy with a couple of spot lights from the policemens lights. This accomplishes the acquaintance of Trinity with be exceptionally dim and tense. It additionally gives the setting an extremely terrifying air; this edges the peruser to foresee what, may occur straightaway. The lighting, also, is diminish in the primary shot of her. This demonstrates Trinity to be gender ambiguous; it makes a feeling of riddle to what sex she is. Also, as it changes to a nearby shot of Trinity affirms that she is a lady. It likewise uncovers in that scene that she is quiet and in charge, despite the fact that there was many police officers with firearms directly behind her. Anyway she despite everything is by all accounts gender ambiguous through her decision of ensemble and make up. For example in a dose of Trinity she is wearing a P.V.C, dark feline suit which speaks to her quality and force. This is additionally communicated from the intense, solid shade of her dark garments. In any event, when she goes out, other than wearing a dress, she despite everything dresses somewhere near wearing similar hues and no adornments. This gives the crowd an impression of how adult, free and solid she is. She is, coincidently as the men around her, this shows the executive needed to introduce that Trinity is indistinguishable to any one else. Her common utilization of make-up depicts her as a man, for example, the manner in which she generally has her hair tied back even in a club. This discloses to us that she doesnt look like shes attempting to dazzle or pull in any one. I figure the executive did this entire plain look of Trinity to make individuals perceive how various ladies have various characteristics. The enhancements utilized in the Matrix lets Trinity appear to be exceptionally courageous. This done through CGI, PC create symbolism. One case of this is the point at which she could hop a significant distance, starting with one structure then onto the next. The CGI utilized in this is showing that gravity has no impact on trinity. Though the cops pursuing her didnt even attempt to emulate trinity since they knew it was outlandish. This demonstrates Trinity can do aptitudes that men cannot do, not to mention abilities that are strangely impractical to people. In this manner she is superhuman. For example Trinity utilizes her own forces as opposed to utilizing and depending on firearms, which is a differentiation to the cops. This gives the watchers a feeling that ladies can be more grounded than men. Another way that demonstrated Trinity to be chivalrous is when Trinity figures out how to escape a circumstance when she was going to surrender. By convincing and constraining her to b eat her dread and continue. This will in all likelihood move ladies everywhere throughout the world to be much the same as her. Then again Sarah is a finished distinctive character to Trinity. This time, Sarah has been demonstrated diverse in manners that are very hottest. Beginning of with the soundtrack, this was extremely delicate in the presentation of Sarah Connor. I figure the executive did this with the goal that Sarah can go over extremely blameless and sweet practically like a youngster. Anyway as the watcher gets into the film the music changes into heart beat sound while Sarah strolls outside without anyone else around evening time. This gives a strained environment and causes you to feel as though something will occur. We likewise get the feeling that Sarah feels the equivalent, that is the reason she went into a club. Coincidently it has many individuals in it. The air in the club was exceptionally jittery. It had quick music and blazing lights which uncovers how urgent Sarah may have felt. The way that she needs to go to a club shows she doesnt have enough certainty and the capacity to guard her self. In this manner she is presented to be a vulnerable casualty. Anyway she additionally gives some knowledge since Sarah likely realized that whoevers behind her has a less possibility of catching her in a crowed place. I think the executive utilized the lighting to cause Sarah to appear to be much increasingly cultured. For example, in one scene as she goes to work the lighting is splendid and radiant. Additionally the music nearly seems like s agreement. This underlines Sarahs women's activist side. The executives choice of apparel is exceptionally, for example, in her activity, the hues utilized in Sarahs outfits are extremely female. She continually sports pink for example the primary shot of her is in a delicate pink coat. This gives the impression of Sarah delicate, quiet and delicate. Her uniform is very scanty and pink too, which is certifiably not a unisex shading in this way the activity of holding up in a drive-through joint was regularly just implied for ladies additionally that Sarah doesnt mind. At long last her robe has animation characters, of the Jetsons, on it. This reveals to us that she is juvenile and virtuous. Besides she utilizes a great deal of make-up. I know this from a sce ne where he includes more make-up no top of the make-up she as of now has on the grounds that she is going out. The entire picture of he was down with the goal that she depicted as an arch light. Since this was made during the 1980s I think ladies were gone before that way. I n Sarahs case no enhancements were utilized this exhibit she is conventional, ordinary and simply like us. Anyway there were various courses in demonstrating what Sarah resembles. In the scene where Sarah is in a dance club she attempts to call somebody. I guess the telephone represents how terrified she is and how hysterical she is for help. Likewise the scene before she goes to work she converses with a sculpture, this emphasizes the point that she is extremely adolescent and childlike. In the event that we look at the two we discover that the two of them strife one another. What's more, the two of them speak to their character in various manners, for example Trinity is demonstrated to be free and solid. For example, in a scene a police officer is being disparages towards Trinity by saying whats one young lady going to do. This is unexpected in light of the fact that later on Trinity figures out how to guard herself. By assaulting about six cops, which each had a firearm, and out run them to. Likewise in the club scene, when Trinity meets Neo, Neo is stunned to discover that Trinity was really a young lady. This is made known when he says youre Trinity? This is generalizing Trinitys capacities, which uncovers that Neo hushes up chauvinist, that he thinks just work like splitting into PCs is finished by men. Sarahs character can be known in the scene where her sweetheart dropped on her up yet she didnt respond like an agitated sweetheart would do, this demonstrates a shortcoming to her character that she is excessively permissive. It additionally appears the two of them live in equal universes. This features the purpose of how the world has changed from 1980 to the 1990s. Also, how it has developed from ladies being generalized to them picking up the rights they merit.

Friday, August 21, 2020

monitoring Of Central Venous Pressure(CVP) Essay

Management/monitoring Of Central Venous Pressure(CVP) Essay Management/monitoring Of Central Venous Pressure(CVP) â€" Essay Example > The care management of an adult patient with central venous lineIntroductionManagement of Central venous pressure is essential in treating the patients with septic shock. Doctors find the need of maintaining CVP while adjusting cardiac preload, contractility, after-load to balance systemic oxygen delivery on demand. Maintenance of adequate central venous pressure helps in carrying out hemodynamic adjustments and maximizing mixed or central venous oxygen saturation. In general patient need CVP greater than 8mm Hg in case of one lactate greater than 4mmol/L and initial fluid challenge with 20mL/Kg of crystalloid equivalent. Management of CVP includes maintaining CVP, considering blood products, maintaining pressure in mechanically ventilated patients, in the cases to increase abdominal pressure and in the cases of septic patients having multi-factorial aspects that demand CVP. 2. Literature Review2.1 General View about CVP: CVP is a direct measurement of the blood pressure in the ri ght atrium and vena cava. The system acquires this pressure threading a central venous catheter into any of various large veins in the cavity. A pressure monitoring assembly in distal port of a multilumen central vein catheter helps in monitor the CVP. The CVP catheter is a significant tool to assess the right ventricular function and systemic fluid status. In normal conditions, the CVP is 2-6mm Hg. CVP increases due to over-hydration that increases venous return. The heart failure or PA stenosis also may lead to venous congestion as it limits the venous outflow. CVP decreases below normal due to hypo-volemic shock from haemorrhage. This may be due to fluid shift and dehydration. The mechanical negative pressure used for high spinal cord injuries also can lead to the decrease of CVP. Considering above-mentioned measurements, the CVP catheter is an important tool for treatment. The monitoring is essential in the cases of rapid infusion, infusion of hypertonic solutions and medicati ons that may damage veins and venous blood assessment. 2.2 Definition and Measurement: According to publications of Sepsis Surviving Campaign, there are no definite calculations provided for Central Venous Pressure. Clinicians like to have a not that central venous pressure as an estimate of volume status that is underestimated in patients receiving positive end expiratory pressure. This is due to absence of measurement tool to account for the effects of PEEP on CVP. 2.3During Liver Transplantations: The effect of low central venous pressure is a factor in transfusion requirements of blood products during liver transplantations and has considerable effect. According to Massicotte et al observation in 2006 regarding liver transplantations, maintaining low central venous pressure through restriction of volume replacement corrected the coagulation defects with plasma transfusion. The basis is regarding the observation of the results in 100 liver transplantations during a two-year peri od. They concluded that the avoidance of plasma transfusion and maintenance of low CVP before anhepatic phase finds its association with RBC transfusions during liver transplantations. This study supports practicing of lowering CVP with phlebotomy in order to reduce blood loss during liver dissection without harmful effect. 2.4 Relationship with Arterial Blood Pressure: The Arterial Blood Pressure is dependent on the product of cardiac output and peripheral resistance. Heart rate and stroke volume control cardiac output. The stroke volume is in turn, related with myocardial contractility and blood volume. The central venous filling or central venous pressure depends on the above-mentioned conditions. Due to this, the venous pressure originates from the arterial pressure. This is in turn, transmitted through the capillary pressure into the venous reservoir. The effects of three factors that include circulation then calculate the CVP. Those three effects are Cardiac pump action, Cir culating blood volume and vascular tone. Cardiac pump action contains inflow that accelerates venous flow and outflow that impedes the venous pressure. The circulating blood volume is a determining factor in the maintenance of central venous pressure. This is because the venous side of vascular system accommodates 50 to 55 percent of total blood volume. Vascular tone refers to external pressure exerted on veins. This depends on contractility of veins, as the veins are resistance vessels. The stimulation of alpha-receptor sites can result in vasoconstriction. Other factors that contribute to external and lateral pressure are pressure by skeletal muscles, tone and pump valve effects. The tissue pressure and respiratory movements also result in exerting CVP. However, the CVP is not an index of blood volume per second as it is the analysis of the interrelated effects of the blood volume, cardiac pump action and vascular tone.

Monday, May 25, 2020

An Analysis of Personality Theory - 1332 Words

An Analysis of Personality Theory by for Everyone has a personality, of course, but until fairly recently, there were no personality theories available to help understand what factors contribute to its development. In recent years, though, personality theories such as McCrae and Costas Big Five and Schwartzs theory of basic values have been advanced for these purposes. To gain some deeper insights into these issues, this paper presents a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to provide a definition of personality and an examination of theoretical approaches to studying personality. Finally, an analysis of those factors that may influence an individuals personality development is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning personality theory in the conclusion. Review and Analysis Definition of Personality An individuals personality is comprised of several factors, some of which may be more prominent at some times than others. The dictionary entry personality defines it as, the complex of characteristics that distinguishes an individual or a nation or group; especially the totality of an individuals behavioral and emotional characteristics (Merriam-Webster, 2001, p. 1687). In this regard, Barrick and Mount (1999) advise that, Personality may to advantage be broadly analyzed into five distinguishable but separate factors, namely intellect, character, temperament, disposition and temper (p. 2). Examination ofShow MoreRelatedIndividuation Analysis : Jungs Theory Of Personality1629 Words   |  7 Pagesthemselves what the point of their existence is (Storr, 1991). One has to self-analyze and let all parts of themselves become one. At the end of this process, a person will be an integrated individual (Storr, 1991). Jung’s Theory of Personality One of Jung’s major contributions was his theory of psychological types. This approach introduced extraversion and introversion (Downey, 1924). According to Jung, an extroverted person’s libido turned outward. This means that a person in a state of extraversion movedRead MoreCritical Analysis of Freuds Theory of Personality907 Words   |  4 PagesSUMMARY Personality is the enduring and unique cluster of characteristics that may change in response to different situations. It can be asses via different approaches such as Self-report or objective inventories, projective techniques, clinical interviews, behavioural assessment procedures and thought and experience-sampling procedures. In the study of personality ideographic research and nomothetic research are used and the major methods that the clinical method, the experimental method and theRead MorePersonality Analysis of Marilyn Monroe by Using Trait Theories1078 Words   |  5 PagesPersonality Analysis of Marilyn Monroe By Using Trait Theories Marilyn Monroe, whose real name is Norma Jeane Mortenson, was born on June 1, 1926 in Los Angeles, California. She was American actress, singer and model. She also was one of the most famous movie star, the sex symbols and pop icons of the 20th century. Despite her an unhappy, difficult childhood she got succeed during her short life period. She worked minor roles for years. Then, she showed her comedy ability, appearance on televisionRead MoreAnalysis of Erik, Phantom of the Opera Using Two Contrasting Personality Theories4920 Words   |  20 Pagesï » ¿Analysis of Erik, Phantom of the Opera Using Two Contrasting Personality Theories The tremendously popular and well-known Andrew Lloyd Webber’s 1986 musical production of The Phantom of the Opera was based on the French novel Le Fantà ´me de lOpà ©ra written by Gaston Leroux in1910 (Leroux, 1910/1990). The original novel gave little direct details with respect to Erik’s past; what was abundant however were hints and implications about the character’s life history throughout the book (Leroux, 1910/1990)Read MoreCosta And Mccrae s Five Factor Theory Of Personality And Eysenck s Pen Theory1496 Words   |  6 PagesCosta and McCrae’s Five Factor theory of personality and Eysenck’s PEN theory have been the subject of significant research in an effort to better understand human personality. This paper focuses on two opposing theories: Costa and McCrae’s Five Factor model, a lexically-based theory with five factors, and Eysenck’s PEN model, a biologically-based theory with three core traits of personality. Utilizing factor analysis, Raymond Cattell (1946) recognized 16 personality factors (16pf). Cattell believedRead MoreFreuds and Rogers Theories of Personality Psychotherapy1004 Words   |  4 PagesFreuds and Rogers Theories Personality Psychotherapy A comparison of Freud and Rogers theories of personality and psychotherapy Personality is the description of an individual through how the individual demonstrates his or her emotions and building relationship and their behavioral patterns. Two neurologists developed two theories to explain the formation of personalities. They were neurologist Sigmund Freud and psychologist Carl Rogers. Rogers and Freud worked in the field of psychotherapyRead MoreEssay about Jennys Personality; Interpretation of Forrest Gump1419 Words   |  6 PagesForrest Gump: Jenny’s Personality Monday, August 22, 2011 PSY202 – Principles of Psychology In this character analysis paper the character of Jenny Curran from the award winning movie Forrest Gump will be the subject of discussion. This paper will present an analysis of the Jenny’s personality as it is applicable to Psychodynamic theory. The paper will present my rationale for the choice to use the Psychodynamic theory to describe Jenny Curran’s personality. In addition, this paper willRead MoreOrganizational Testing and Assessment Essay examples1171 Words   |  5 Pageseffective and reliable in screening employees. In addition they need to know how to properly administer and interpret the results. In the sections below, performance appraisal, behavioral observation scales, the Big Five Personality Theory, meta-analysis, and Carroll’s three stratum theory will be all described and what their purpose is as to being used in organizational testing and assessment. A performance appraisal is basically the same things as a performance of one’s work, a review, an evaluationRead MoreThe Five Factor Model Of Personality853 Words   |  4 PagesAn analysis of the five factor model of personality Many contemporary psychologists believe that there are five basic dimensions of personality and refer to them as the ‘Big Five’. The five-factor model (FFM) of personality is a theory based on five core categories of human personality – openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. While different theorists may use different terminology, the five factors or personality traits have shown a rather consistent pattern overRead MoreComparing The Work Of Sigmund Freud And A Neo Analytical Theorist1290 Words   |  6 Pages Contrasting Personality Theories: Analysis of Freud and Karen Horney Yorkville University Alanna Sampson â€Æ' Abstract The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of the work of Sigmund Freud and a neo-analytical theorist. This paper will compare the work of Freud and Karen Horney and begins with an introduction to the study of personality and an identification of the key elements in Freud and Horney’s theories. The paper then moves into an analysis of where Horney and Freud would

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Chesapeake And New England Colonies Essay - 1819 Words

A community is a group of people who work together towards a common goal and share a common interest. Lack of such a quality can and most likely will cause a struggling town or city to fall into the extremes of poverty and wealth. The New England community was so strong and so supportive in comparison to that of the Chesapeake Bay, that it is no wonder they developed into two distinctly different cultures before the year 1700. The Chesapeake region developed into a land of plantations and money-driven owners, with the elite wealthy, almost no middle class, and those in poverty creating the population. New England, on the other hand, had developed into a religion and family based society comprised of mostly middle class families by 1700.†¦show more content†¦The motives that drove the Pilgrims and Puritans away from anything familiar and the trust they placed in God only proved that they were going to make their life in the new world work, no matter what. Not everyone in Engl and was facing a harsh persecution; many travelers came to the New World with high hopes of money, which led to numerous conflicts. It was a land for the rich to get richer. Most of the settlers bound for Virginia and the Southern colonies had a get rich or die trying type of attitude. The only thing tearing them from home was a flimsy promise of gold that may or may not be there. The motive of such people is so radically different. There were no pacts of agreement, no common laws that kept them in a community once landing. This led the men to never develop any sense of belonging with their fellow men, causing a distinct survival society by 1700. Every man was for himself. It was a bitter game displaying the survival of the richest. The travelers from England that headed for the Chesapeake Bay were predominantly men, which led to an unbalanced society and lack of wives to promote a family-based culture. The passenger list for one boat had a sex ratio of sixty-four men to eleven women. Not only was there a radical imbalance, only four of the men were above forty, while only eight total were above thirty (Doc. C). That left fifty-six young males headed to a new land with only their self-government of a HouseShow MoreRelatedThe New England And Chesapeake Colonies1471 Words   |  6 Pageswas the formation of the thirteen colonies along the North American east coast. These colonies are generally divided into New England, Middle and South or the Chesapeake regions. Most of these colonies were settled by the British, yet they developed differently as the years went by. Some developed into more egalitarian colonies and some not. The greatest differences could be seen in the New England and Chesapeake regions. Even tho ugh the New England and Chesapeake regions were settled originally byRead MoreThe New England And The Chesapeake Colonies Essay1476 Words   |  6 Pagesleading into the 17th century. England was very forceful in pushing out multiple groups of people to the eastern coast of what is now known as North America. At that time there were only two prominent regions in North America, they were known then as the New England and the Chesapeake colonies. These two colonies would eventually band together to stand as one nation, but that was toward the end of the 17th century. The beginning tells a completely different story, both colonies had very different beliefsRead MoreThe New England And Chesapeake Colonies1290 Words   |  6 Pagesfurther exploration of this new world opened to many countries in Europe including England, Spain, and France. While France conquered present day Canada and Spain dominated both Central and South America, English mostly settled in the east coast of present da y United States. During the seventeenth century, a large influx of immigrants came to the New World from England for many different reasons. Due to differences in motive and geography, the New England and Chesapeake colonies developed unique societiesRead MoreThe New England And Chesapeake Colonies1490 Words   |  6 PagesThe people of the New England and Chesapeake colonies, although came from the same people, turned into very different cultures. For example, in New England, Puritanism was favored while in the Chesapeake region Christianity was practiced. Often times, religion would dictate a certain peoples way of life. Although both religions were strict, both had different ideas. Also, there were disagreements that occurred between the people within a colony. Many other ways of life were established in each ofRead MoreThe Chesapeake Colonies and New England Colonies Essay1260 Words   |  6 PagesSpain, Portugal, Holland, and England, all competed for colonization in unknown territories. Samuel de Champlain colonized along the St. Lawrence River in 1608, Henry Hudson of Holland established Albany in 1609, and Spain established colonies in Mexico and Mesoamerica. In 1607, England established its first colony in North America around the Chesapeake Bay, and nearly a decade later established a second colony in present-day New England. Both New England and the Chesapeake were founded by the BritishRead MoreChesapeake Colonies vs. New England Colonies933 Words   |  4 Pagescentury, two colonies emerged from England in the New World. The two colonies were called the Chesapeake and New England colonies. Even though the two areas were formed and governed by the English, the colonies had similarities as well as differences. Differences in geography, religion, politics, economic, and nationalities, were responsible for molding the colonies. These differences came from one major factor: the very reason the English settlers came to the New World. †¨The Chesa peake colonies were primarilyRead MoreCompare And Contrast The Chesapeake And New England Colonies1071 Words   |  5 Pagesthe New World, the English also started to establish colonies and settle in the New World. To encourage the colonization of the New World, England offered charters to Joint-Stock Companies and individuals to set up colonies in the New World. Although the Chesapeake and New England settlers both migrated from England, the two regions of the New World developed into distinctly different societies due to different economic reasons, types of people, and political organization. Both of the colonies hadRead MoreEssay Chesapeake Vs. New England Colonies763 Words   |  4 Pagesdiversity being sown in the early days of colonization when the Chesapeake and New England colonies grew into distinctive societies. Even though both regions were primarily English, they had similarities as well as striking differences. The differentiating characteristics among the Chesapeake and New England colonies developed due to geography, religion, and motives for colonial expansion. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Virginia, the Chesapeake Bay area, was not interested in long-term colonization inRead MoreDifferences Between New England And Chesapeake Colonies1276 Words   |  6 Pagesfindings of new created much curiosity in Europe to explore and conquer new lands in order to expand their empire. In the early 1600’s a surge of motivation to explore and settle new colonies came over England. The Result of this was the New England and Chesapeake colonies, who were both settled by immigrants from England. Many people decided they needed to escape England due to religious persecution and poverty. Hundreds of families, men, women, and their children, came in search of a New World whereRead MoreA Comparison of the New England and the Chesapeake Bay Colonies947 Words   |  4 Pagesthe New England and Chesapeake Bay Regions During the 1700s, people in the American colonies lived in very distinctive societies. While some colonists led hard lives, others were healthy and prosperous. The two groups who showed these differences were the colonists of the New England and Chesapeake Bay areas. The differentiating characteristics among the Chesapeake and New England colonies developed due to economy, religion, and motives for colonial expansion. The colonists of the New England

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Defining The Meaning Of Corporate Social Responsibility

2.0 Discussion 2.1 Defining the meaning of Corporate Social Responsibility Till now, there is no concrete definition of CSR in international level, as it is difficult to identify the boundaries of CSR. Therefore, there are several definitions to describe what the CSR policy is. However, it is noted [1] that CSR meaning is different from countries to other countries and depends upon a range of factors including culture, religion, and governmental or legislative conditions. For instance, the practise of CSR in South Africa focused on matters of racial inequality due to the historic event of Apartheid, while the practise of CSR in Argentina is determined in accordance with the impact of economical crisis in December 2001. W. Visser claimed [2] that, CSR is the formal and informal ways in which business makes a contribution to improving the governance, social, ethical, labour and environmental conditions of the developing countries in which they operate, while remaining sensitive to prevailing religious, historical and cultural contexts . ’ European Commission defines[3] that CSR is , A concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis. The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD)[4]: Corporate Social Responsibility is the continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development whileShow MoreRelatedCorporate Social Responsibility And Its Effects On Consumers And Brand Equity1107 Words   |  5 Pages1: Introduction: Corporate social responsibility is an ambiguous topic to say the least. There has been a vast array of research conducted aimed at understanding why businesses use it, and its effects on consumers and brand equity. In the following section, I will highlight some of the main literature, and critically discuss some of the findings. There is however, a gap in research in terms of critically analysing the extent to which firms position themselves with CSR initiatives through the useRead MoreMicrosoft’s Partnership with Unhcr – Pro Bono Publico Essay1089 Words   |  5 Pagesbetween the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the software giant Microsoft Corporation facilitated a strategic and mutually beneficial partnership, as well as shaping the definition today of good corporate social responsibility. The corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiative was created back in 1999 as an endeavor at a point in time when Microsoft employees engaged to assi st to aid the victims of the Kosovo crisis. The emotional undertaking is referred to as the spark createdRead MoreDefining Civic And Social Responsibility920 Words   |  4 PagesCivic / Social Responsibility Defining Civic and Social Responsibility In a recent article concerning corporate social responsibility, it reveals; â€Å"a survey conducted by and BEYOND Communications Inc. shows big changes in how CEOs reported on corporate social responsibilities.† (Go figure - corporate social responsibility, (2005). The point of view is changing within the corporation world. CEOs are now taking note that this needs to be incorporated into the corporate structure and is a significantRead MoreCarrolls Interpretation of Corporate Social Responsibility1191 Words   |  5 PagesThis report will demonstrate how Carroll’s interpretation of corporate social Responsibility (CSR) is more suited to an Anglo-American interpretation of CSR compared to that of a Nigerian perspective as it is difficult to apply the ideas in the African context due to the country being less stable than the western world that we know. To demonstrate this I will look at the Shell case study in Nigeria and how â€Å"culture may have an important inf luence on CSR priorities† (Burton et al, 2000). In MarchRead MoreHistory And Meaning Of Corporate Governance1450 Words   |  6 PagesCorporate governance is a key term to understand and it is increasingly important part of running a successful company. The system has evolved over the years, guided by the challenges and misjudgements of the corporate world. The following guide will help you look into the history and meaning of corporate governance and find out about the core principles of it. You can also read about the key models and guidelines that help companies implement strong corporate governance in the demanding and competitiveRead MoreImportance of Sustainability in Organizations636 Words   |  3 Pagesimportant on the corporate agenda. According to Brundtland Commission of the  United Nations (1987) sustainability is defined as operating in a way that preserves the long-term quality and productive capacity of both the natural and social environments in which a company operates. For humans, sustainability is defined as the potential for long-term maintenance of well being, which has environmental, economic, and social dimensions. Sustainability therefore involves: †¢ A broad view of social, environmentalRead MoreWhat Does Corporate Responsibility Mean1518 Words   |  7 PagesWhat Does Corporate Social Responsibility Mean? Corporate initiative to assess and take responsibility for the company s effects on the environment and impact on social welfare. The term generally applies to company efforts that go beyond what may be required by regulators or environmental protection groups.  Ã‚   Corporate social responsibility may also be referred to as corporate citizenship and can involve incurring short-term costs that do not provide an immediate financial benefit to theRead MoreThe Concepts Of Corporate Social Responsibility1456 Words   |  6 PagesThe concepts of corporate social responsibility (CSR) have been evolving for decades. At the very beginning, it was argued that corporation’s sole responsibility was to provide maximum financial returns to shareholders. However, it became quickly apparent to everyone that this pursuit of financial gain had to take place within the boundary of the legal system (Carroll, 1979;1991). Bowen’s 1953 publication of ‘Social Responsibility of Businessman’ was considered by many scholar to be the first definitiveRead MoreValues, Ethics, And Sustainability1049 Words   |  5 Pagesstrong relations with each other, companies strategically thinking how to improve business and having partnerships with each othe r to help out today’s social problems. Key Words: Community, Community relations manager, License to operate, Volunteerism, Collaborative Partnerships. The Community and the Corporation Chapter eighteen focuses on defining community and understanding how companies and communities depend on each other to work together. A community benefits business and corporations becauseRead MoreThe Corporate Social Responsibilities ( Csr ) And Maintainability1483 Words   |  6 PagesPresentation Deliberating with the rules given in the inquiries, the entire task worries about the Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR) and maintainability. As it is specified in the inquiries we ll be discussing the CSR and maintainability. The goals of each business while building up are to make the financial conditions more grounded and to last nature for future era. Performing amid its normal exercises, it is having negative effect in nature. In the event that these sorts of exercises are

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Professional - Ethical & Legal Issues in Healthcare

Question: Discuss about theProfessional, Ethical Legal Issues in Healthcare. Answer: Introduction The advancement of medical science has brought forth multiple changes in the healthcare sector in keeping with the changing trends and needs of the hour. The modifications and drastic measures that are revised from time to time support for the economic as well as health wise prosperity of the citizens of a nation. The alterations and changes prior to coming into force have to face several intermittent stages of abiding by the ethical issues and legal implications so as to ensure optimum outcomes in the concerned population. Therefore, the measures adapted to culminate in harboring maximum possible benefit out of a clinical situation are often shrouded with few questions and circumstances that account for ethical dilemma (Lo, 2012). This necessitates the healthcare providers encompassing physicians, nurses, paramedics and other supporting staff to strictly work in compliance with the existing code of conduct, guidelines and legislations to render quality healthcare facility to the dis tressed patients without violating the ethical and legal principles. The shared decision making in this regard have been indicated as an essential virtue to translate the conceptions into actual clinical practice (Elwin et al. 2012). The following assignment will be based on a scenario concerning a terminally ill cancer survivor that provides an example of ethical dilemma. The discussions will be done in accordance with the given scenario following the ethical, legal and professional aspects of a practice based situation. Further application and evaluation of the bioethical principles involving autonomy, justice, beneficence, and non-maleficence will form the basis of the logical discussion. Philosophical theories such as deontology and utilitarianism will be considered for understanding the situation pertinent to the given scenario. These theories and principles will be interlinked to the case situation to get an insight into the relevant scenario. Ethical Situation During the course of my clinical practice as a nursing professional I encountered a situation that had put me into ethical dilemma. Ms. Ann was diagnosed with cancer and was brought to the hospital for the treatment of her ailment. However, her family members were very much concerned about Ms. Ann and insisted that this harsh truth of cancer diagnosis be concealed from her in an effort to allay her emotional distress of being informed to be diagnosed of a life threatening disease like that of cancer. The end of life decisions and treatments for such patients is therefore imperative to foster best possible care (Bossaert et al. 2015). The reason I chose to discuss this particular instance is that the decisions and subsequent care and treatment regime for people suffering from debilitating and serious illness like that of cancer, AIDS and others have been a matter of serious concern for the healthcare providers globally. These people particularly the nurses are challenged to take independent and case appropriate measures to provide maximum relief to these terminally ill patients without breaching bioethical principles and inflicting any sort of harm. Thus proper awareness and knowledge regarding the laws and professional as well as ethical issues will aid the nurses to act rationally and cope up with the demanding scenarios effectively (Walker and Colledge 2013). Discussion The given case may be analyzed in the light of the ethical, legal and professional aspects of a practice based situation. Research reveals that oncology nurses routinely encounter situations of ethical dilemma while caring for advanced cancer patient specifically relating prognosis related communications. The nurses experience situations of uncertainty and barriers in providing end of life care healthcare service and hence clarifications regarding their roles and responsibilities to counteract such incidents are required. The most commonly reported ethical dilemma involves uncertainty and hindrance to truth telling (McLennon et al. 2013). Similar encounter is reported in case of Ms. Ann, a cancer patient where the family members are found to persuade the nursing professionals to refrain from uttering the truth to the patient for preventing further mental complications mainly. Interdisciplinary education may contribute to mitigate the issues faced by the nursing professionals. Therefo re, in this matter global bioethics may be consulted to attain a level of consensus through constructive dialogues and negotiations. Both bottom-up as well as top-down approach of interaction may be suitable in such cases (ten Have and Gordijn 2014). All the virtues and guiding principles need to be properly addressed in each of the cases to provide an effective solution to the demanding problems. The given scenario will be discussed in such pretext. Autonomy and justice are the two most essential virtues of bioethical principles. Autonomy upholds the privacy and confidentiality of the affected individuals or the patients receiving care under the guidance of the healthcare worker in a specific clinical setting and infrastructure. Provision of sufficient information without suppression of facts to enable them to make informed choices is an important prerequisite of such principle (Beauchamp 2016). On the other hand justice emphasizes on equal worth of persons and fair opportunity for all and is guided by a moral obligation to entitlement (Cole, Wellard and Mummery 2014). Customarily patient advocacy has recently been reinforced in the nursing codes of conduct, codes of ethics and standards for practice to promote resolution of these issues in the clinical practice. In the given context Ms. Allens privacy and confidentiality was effectively maintained thus providing evidence for acting in conformity with the autonomy principle. However concealment of facts was done in this case in an effort to do good to her without taxing her with the harsh truth about her prevailing clinical condition. Her family members were fully aware about her clinical condition and they only appealed the nurses of not telling her the truth. No discrimination was performed in treating the patient and therefore justice was adequately protected. In a holistic approach for patient management and treatment strategy a patient and family centered care model has been recommended to better understand the clinical outcomes in such patients. Coordination and communication among all the components involved is thus suggested as integral to patient recovery (Hood 2013). Therefore, in the said case a little violation of autonomy principle was observed due to truth concealment from the p atient although justice was provided to the utmost. In nursing practice consideration of three key aspects of care, vulnerability and dignity have been highlighted as ethical approaches to maintain, protect and promote the self worth of the patient. This has been observed as a foundation for argument based nursing ethics framework (Gastmans 2013). This philosophy may be corroborated with the given case study where the nurses refrained from uttering the truth regarding the diagnosis of cancer in Ms. Ann due to the potential vulnerability of her from actually getting to know the significance of her clinical findings. Care was also properly addressed in terms of provision of moral support to the patient without actually making her aware about the graveness of her ailment. Dignity of Ms. Ann was maintained throughout the treatment regime by virtue of ethical and legal compliance to the professional codes of conduct as referred to in the Singapore Nursing Board guidelines related to Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct for the nurses (A non, 2016). Another aspect of the healthcare sector emphasizes on the active participation of the end users of healthcare commonly referred to as the patients, consumers or public into decision making in both economic and therapeutic fields thereby rendering crucial implications for maintaining the rights of the patient. The rights of the patients include equal access to healthcare from all quarters of the healthcare facility. The right to accept or deny treatment in conjunction with other rights such as formulation of advance directives is yet another key component of the prospective rights to be enjoyed by the patient. The right to information and communication prior to receiving therapeutic interventions is a vital necessity for the patients for procuring enough information related to the health that might affect the recovery process (Johnstone 2015). Thus the rights of the patient in the particular case were protected as far as practicable by accounting her physical treatment modalities and not just emphasizing her individual decision making ability and choices in receiving specific care. Quality care provision was not particularly compromised in the given case although informed decision making was quite limited with an effort to mitigate her psychological distress from knowing the actual truth. As per the empirical research findings, the salient features pertaining to healthcare facility include clashing of ethical principles, issues associated to communication, dearth of resources and quality of care provision. Improved ethics education for care providers will offer better service provision facility within a healthcare setting according to such research (Preshaw et al. 2015). Another crucial principle related to bioethics encompasses beneficence where the caregivers are under the obligation of providing maximum benefit. The aim of the caregiver relies on evaluating the risks and benefits properly in order to provide optimum care. Promotion of well-being is the chief objective of beneficence. The intention of doing good and what is necessary for the patient is the motto of the service providers in abiding by this virtue (Rocco et al. 2014). In the context of the given scenario the virtue of beneficence was followed to the core by the healthcare practitioners since they engaged in doing utmost good for the patient by not revealing the harsh truth of cancer diagnosis. Their efforts were directed to alleviate the mental trauma and panic of the patients from the negative perception and knowledge regarding the ensuing conditions from disease. The fact concealment by the healthcare workers was done for the ultimate good of the patient in the given scenario considering the fact that the patient might be profoundly impacted on knowing the actual truth. Therefore for the sake of the good of the patient and allay the possibility for any sort of mental distress from information related to her diagnosis of cancer was kept secret from Ms. Ann. Apparently though it might seem that the beneficence was not maintained, but on closer inspection it will become evident that the decision for hiding the truth of cancer detection from the pat ient was correct and prudent in terms of gaining long term benefits out of such act. Research has underpins the importance of framing a uniform evidence based ethical infrastructure to facilitate better patient care and clinical outcome. Promotion of correct and case appropriate decision making abilities among the nursing professionals in their professional practice and research are also among the projected purpose of such study (Mallari, Grace and Joseph 2016). Hence the act of the nurses as observed in Ms. Anns case seems perfectly justified. The act of inflicting the least possible harm in order to achieve a positive beneficial outcome is generally referred to as non-malfeasance. Harms and its effects are of pivotal importance in ethical decision making process during clinical practice. Research has highlighted on the unintentional short term and long term harm to be attributable to life saving treatment that enable the patient to recover from their diseased states quite peacefully without any hassle. The notion of doing less harm than doing more good forms the core ideology of this bioethical principle. This virtue in addition to other bioethical virtues guiding the moral code of conduct in a practicing medical professional needs proper evaluation and fixed set of principles to ease the task of the healthcare workers with their regular clinical discourse. Research has highlighted the need of planning ethics content in nursing curricula to improve moral sensitivity and moral reasoning among the students (Park et al. 2012 ). The nursing outcomes classification (NOC) has been indicated as a valid measurement technique to assess the situation of the terminally ill patients suffering from cancer possessing chronic or acute pain within a palliative care unit (Mello et al. 2016). In the given scenario, the nurses with the complete support and informed consent from the family members of Ms. Ann, a cancer patient made utmost effort to inflict least amount of harm to her. Their approach may be attributed to the fact that in order to prevent the risk of developing immense stress and agony from knowing that Ms. Ann was suffering from the incurable and grave disease of cancer, the nurses following repeated appeal from her family members refrained from exposing the truth to the patient. This was done for all good of the patient so that she does not suffer from further complication as a consequence to her diagnosis. Although the nurses are exposed to a situation of ethical dilemma under such circumstances, yet they are found to do commendable jobs by taking measures of not doing harm to the patient. Bolstering ethical awareness is of surmountable significance under such conditions to recognize and acknowledge the unique interests and wishes of the individual patients receiving care under medical supervision of the nurses (Milliken and Grace 2015). Further in the context of hospital setting safety education programs within an organizational framework effective safety nursing activities has been recommended to usher awareness pertaining to patient safety culture (Kang and Park 2016). Hence taking into consideration of the above criteria, the conduct of the nurses in the given scenario was found to be in line with the principle of non-malfeasance. For nursing practice, abiding by the existing rules and legislations is widely reckoned as an essential prerequisite to determine the accountability of the practicing nursing professional by virtue of predefined set of competency standards that are commonly followed in most of the nations worldwide. These laws serve to act as sources of guidance for the nurses in medico-legal cases and also set limitations to independent nursing actions. Maintenance of standards of nursing practice along with differentiation being made between the nurses responsibilities from other healthcare professionals is also the function of the laws concerning nursing practice. Nursing laws are generally the outcome of statutes or legislation that are stringently regulated and amended from time to time by a governing authority (Krautscheid 2014). In nursing practice, serious violation of the relevant laws often leads to criminal or legal prosecution depending upon the seriousness of the situation. Breach of conduct in professional nursing practice often accompanies situation where safety, privacy, confidentiality and dignity of the patients are not adequately addressed thereby paving the ways for criminal prosecution. Nurses are generally held accountable for making sound, professional judgments, anticipating foreseeable damage and being answerable for the actions. For achieving the optimum clinical outcomes relevant to a particular case a holistic mode of treatment strategy is recommended. Collaborative approach for improvising treatment schedule in coalition with the moral and ethical principles endeavor to harbor maximum benefits in clinical nursing practice (Grace 2013). Other guiding principles and standards for practice in nursing emphasizes on proper documentation of medical records, strict monitoring of the drug admin istration and undertaking a person centered care approach unique to each patient to ensure quality healthcare service. Maintenance of privacy and confidentiality of the retrieved patient data in keeping with the human rights and informed consent protocol are the two vital legal considerations in nursing practice and the Human Rights Act (1998) and Data Protection Act (2003) may be referred in this context (Mair 2014). In the given scenario all the legal implications were followed adequately to ensure the best possible clinical outcomes in the cancer patient. The case of Ms. Ann can be further analyzed on the basis of the deontological philosophy of normative ethical theory. It states that right or wrong actions do not account for the consequences; instead they act as indicators of agreement with moral norms and rules. Intention is the matter of consideration in such theories to judge the rationality of a particular task. In short actions determine the goodness or badness out of a scenario. Telling the truth and keeping promises are perceived as integral to comply by a set of moral decorum even for situations where harm might occur. Democratic professionalism has been detected as an important contributing factor in establishing social justice in this regard (Thompson 2014). Following the given case scenario, the deontological philosophy was not fully satisfied as the nurses intentionally refrained from telling the truth to the patient regarding her cancer diagnosis. It was a conscious decision on the nurses parts to not reveal the truth with a specific purpose of reducing and mitigating the burden of psychological distress in the patient. Thus this theory of judging the moral rightness of an act in terms of the intrinsic moral value of the act itself through deontology was found to be incongruent and inconclusive in Ms. Anns context. Deeper probe into the theories guiding the ethical conduct of a person and pertinent to healthcare settings in case of the practicing nurses, the concept of utilitarianism may be considered for discussion. It is based on the principle that an action is morally right if it has the ability to generate greater amount of good or happiness than any other possible act. Thus the moral worth of an action is solely determined by its contribution to overall utility (Qi, Xu and Shan 2013). Production of the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of people is another key feature of the utilitarianism philosophy and essentially adopts a teleological approach to ethics and supports in favor of judging an action based upon its consequences. Careful, objective and impartial evaluations of the consequences are some of the other vital concepts relevant to this theory (Alligood 2013). Ms. Anns case study corroborates with the philosophy of the utilitarianism where actions were very much intended to harbor optimum benefits from concealment of truth from the patient to do ultimate good to her. Such decisions reflected upon bringing happiness and relief to majority of the persons involved in the case encompassing the patient, her family members and the attending healthcare providers. The patient did not have to face the trauma of knowing the truth while the family was relived of not informing their loved one about the tragedy of the terminal illness. The nurses were also happy to perform to the best of their capability of what was expected out of them under such demanding scenario. Conclusion In fine assessing from the situations that had thwarted the nurse to encounter a perception of ethical dilemma, a proper feedback in handling similar scenarios may be obtained. The nurse performed case suited responsibility through prudence and pragmatism to ensure the best possible remedy and benefit for the patient named Ms. Ann diagnosed with cancer without doing any harm that might have repercussive outcomes in future. Thus beneficence and non-maleficence virtue was accurately addressed. Justice was done in this case as it was fair to make the patient unaware about her specific problem for her own good as disclosure of the actual reality might delay her chances of recovery and put her into more complication because of potential risks of psychological setbacks (Cherry and Jacob 2015). The right action for the immediate good of the patient was done through concealments of the facts pertaining to her medical condition that was in line with the philosophical theory of utilitarianism. However the near and dear ones of the patient comprising of her family members were made aware about her situation and obligatory duty by the nurses was performed in compliance with the deontological concept. Self dignity and rights of the patient was also maintained in the clinical handling situation that may be rationalized in the context of preservation of autonomy (Kuhse and Singer 2013). Hence, overall consideration of the patient circumstances pertaining to the given scenario provides insightful knowledge regarding patient handling appropriate to a specific case and in offering evidence based care in clinical setting. The professional codes of conduct, ethical and legal issues in healthcare are thus imperative to provide maximum healthcare utility for patients demanding critical care services facilitating the possibility of recuperation in such cases. References Alligood, M.R., 2013.Nursing theory: Utilization application. Elsevier Health Sciences. Anon, (2016). 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